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Hannah Ritchie, Max Roser


8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th


Science, Social Studies, Earth and Space Sciences, Economics, Mathematics

Resource Types

  • Charts, Graphs, and Tables
  • Interactive Media

Regional Focus


Annual Growth in GDP and CO2 Emissions

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  • This interactive line graph and table compare the annual change in GDP with the change in carbon dioxide emissions.
  • The data starts from 1961 and can be customized to show specific world regions, countries, and continents. It can also be downloaded.
Teaching Tips


  • The resource shows the relationship between GDP and CO2 emissions.

Additional Prerequisites

  • Students should know how to read a line graph.
  • Students should be familiar with the terms gross domestic product and carbon emissions.


  • Statistics and math classes could examine and discuss the mathematical relationship between the change in GDP and the change in CO2 emissions.
  • Economics classes could evaluate the data from the United States and discuss how the relationship between GDP and COemissions might be starting to change.
    Scientist Notes

    The resource compares the annual growth rate of GPD and CO2 emissions at a global level. The method used in measuring the annual growth rate is specific, then for CO2 emissions, a conversion factor of 3.664 was used to standardize the units. This resource is recommended for teaching.

  • Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)
    • ESS3: Earth and Human Activity
      • MS-ESS3-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
      • HS-ESS3-1 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.
  • College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Standards
    • Dimension 2: Economics
      • D2.Eco.11.9-12 Use economic indicators to analyze the current and future state of the economy.
  • Common Core Math Standards (CCSS.MATH)
    • Statistics & Probability: Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions (9-12)
      • CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.IC.B.6 Evaluate reports based on data.
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